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Blood pressure describes the pressure of the blood against the walls of the blood vessels which is mostly a result of the heart pumping. Typically blood pressure is given through two values: The "systolic pressure" – which is the highest pressure during a heart beat – and the "diastolic pressure" – which is the lowest pressure between two heart beats. Blood pressure is a key vital sign used to evaluate health, alongside heart rate, body temperature, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation .
Blood pressure ranges[edit | edit source]
Blood pressure can be categorized in different "normal" and "abnormal" categories, depending on the values. Only high blood pressure values are categorized in different levels of "hypertension", while lower blood pressure values do not have a clear category for "hypotension".
|Category||Systolic (higher) value||Diastolic (lower) value|
|Normal||<120 mmHg||and||<80 mmHg|
|Elevated||120-129 mmHg||and||<80 mmHg|
|High blood pressure (stage 1)||130-139 mmHg||or||80-89 mmHg|
|High blood pressure (stage 2)||140+ mmHg||or||90+ mmHg|
|Hypertensive crisis||180+ mmHg||or||120+ mmHg|
Relevance[edit | edit source]
Long-term Hypertension (high blood pressure) has been found to be a major risk factor for stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vision loss, dementia and other diseases. Preventative measures suggested by the British Hypertension Society include maintaining a "normal" body weight, reducing sodium intake, physical activity and reducing stress, a balanced diet and limiting alcohol consumption.
Hypotension (a low blood pressure) can cause symptoms such as dizziness or fainting. Beyond acute causes (such as sepsis or blood loss), hormonal abnormalities or other disorders might be the cause.
How to measure blood pressure[edit | edit source]
There are many blood pressure measurement devices that are offered at pharmacies for a comparatively low price. Typically, none of these measure blood pressure over time but are rather for manual use in regular intervals. Typically these also don't store or export data.
Some manufacturers provide "smart" blood pressure monitors which store data and synchronize it to smartphone apps. For example, Withings offers two different smart blood pressure monitors, and Omron provides a range of monitors with different features at different price points.
Smart Bands may be able to do it using Pulse Wave Velocity, which measures the time between ECG pulse and Pulse oximetry. Fitbit recently started a study for customers that use a Fitbit Sense to evaluate whether this is feasible.
References[edit | edit source]
- Lackland DT, Weber MA (May 2015). "Global burden of cardiovascular disease and stroke: hypertension at the core". The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 31 (5): 569–71. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2015.01.009. PMID 25795106.
- Mendis S, Puska P, Norrving B (2011). Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control (PDF) (1st ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization in collaboration with the World Heart Federation and the World Stroke Organization. p. 38. ISBN 9789241564373. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2014.
- Williams B, Poulter NR, Brown MJ, Davis M, McInnes GT, Potter JF, Sever PS, McG Thom S (March 2004). "Guidelines for management of hypertension: report of the fourth working party of the British Hypertension Society, 2004-BHS IV". Journal of Human Hypertension. 18 (3): 139–85. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001683. PMID 14973512
- Braunwald, Eugene; Bonow, Robert O. (2012). Braunwald's heart disease : a textbook of cardiovascular medicine (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 9781437703986. OCLC 671465395.